[React]Programming paradigms & techniques comparison in Action using TypeScript

[React]Programming paradigms & techniques comparison in Action using TypeScript


12 min read

Programming paradigms have been invented and are used to provide different approaches and methodologies for solving problems in software development. Each paradigm has its strengths and weaknesses and is suited to different types of problems. Here are some reasons why programming paradigms have been invented and are used

In practice, many modern programming languages support multiple paradigms, and experienced programmers often mix and match paradigms to leverage the strengths of each according to the problem at hand.

1. Problem Suitability: Different problems require different approaches. For instance, object-oriented programming is more suitable for scenarios where you need to model complex entities with behaviors, while functional programming is often better for mathematical computations or manipulating immutable data.

2. Abstraction and Expressiveness: Some paradigms offer higher levels of abstraction, which can make it easier to express complex ideas with less code. This can make programs easier to understand and maintain. For example, declarative programming allows you to focus on what needs to be achieved, rather than how to achieve it.

3. Performance Considerations: In some cases, a particular paradigm may offer performance benefits for a specific type of problem. For example, imperative programming often provides more control over the hardware, which can be useful in performance-critical applications.

4. Code Maintenance and Scalability: Paradigms like object-oriented and functional programming encourage code reuse and modularity, which can make it easier to maintain and scale large codebases.

5. Concurrency and Parallelism: The increasing need to write code that can run concurrently on multi-core processors has led to the adoption of paradigms like functional programming, which is well-suited to parallelism due to its avoidance of mutable states.

6. Error Handling and Safety: Some paradigms have features that make writing safe and robust code easier. For example, functional programming’s emphasis on immutability can help to avoid certain types of bugs.

7. Community and Legacy: Sometimes the paradigm choice is influenced by the community or the legacy codebase. For instance, if a programming language or toolset is predominantly used with a certain paradigm, it might make sense to follow that paradigm for consistency and support.

8. Cognitive Mapping: Certain paradigms are closer to how humans think about problems. Object-oriented programming, for example, allows modeling the real world with objects, which can be more intuitive.

TypeScript React is versatile and allows for a mix of different paradigms so it will be perfect for our post :

1. Imperative Programming:

In imperative programming, you tell the computer exactly what steps it should take to solve a problem. It focuses on describing how a program operates.

- Pros:

- Can offer more control over low-level details.

- Can be more performance-oriented.

- Cons:

- Code can become hard to read and maintain, especially as it scales.

  • Not as reusable and modular.

- Example in TypeScript React:

import React, { useState } from "react";

// This component is an example of Imperative Programming
const ImperativeCounter: React.FC = () => {
    // keep track of count state
    const [count, setCount] = useState<number>(0);

    // This is the function that will be called when the button is clicked
    const handleIncrement = (): void => {
        // how to update the state
        setCount(count + 1);

    // Rendering the count and a button to increment it
    return (
            <p>Count: {count}</p>
            <button onClick={handleIncrement}>Increment</button>

export default ImperativeCounter;

2. Declarative Programming:

Declarative programming is about telling the computer what you want to achieve without necessarily detailing how to do it. In React, this is usually how components are structured, focusing on what the UI should look like rather than how it gets to that state.

- Pros:

- More readable and expressive code.

- Easier to maintain and scale.

- Cons:

- Sometimes less control over optimizations.

- Can be less performant for certain tasks.

- Example in TypeScript React:

import React from "react";

// Defining TypeScript interface for component props
type DisplayListProps = {
    items: string[];

// This component is an example of Declarative Programming
const DisplayList: React.FC<DisplayListProps> = ({ items }) => {
    // We are describing what should be rendered in terms of the input items,
    // without detailing the exact steps to render the list
    return (
            {items.map(item => (
                <li key={item}>{item}</li>

export default DisplayList;

3. Functional Programming:

Functional programming treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions. React embraces functional programming concepts like immutability and pure functions.

- Pros:

- Code is generally more predictable.

- Easier to test and debug.

- Cons:

- Can be harder for newcomers to understand.

- Sometimes less performant due to immutability.

- Example in TypeScript React:

import React, { useState } from "react";

// This component is an example of Functional Programming
const FunctionalCounter: React.FC = () => {
    // Using React state hooks for immutability
    const [count, setCount] = useState<number>(0);

    // A pure function that doesn't change anything outside of its scope
    // and only returns the new state based on the input
    const incrementCount = (): void => {
        // Using a functional update to ensure we have the latest state
        setCount(prevCount => prevCount + 1);

    // Rendering the UI based on the current state
    return (
            <p>Count: {count}</p>
            <button onClick={incrementCount}>Increment</button>

export default FunctionalCounter;

4. Object-Oriented Programming (OOP):

- brief: OOP is a programming paradigm based on the concept of “objects”, which are instances of classes. These objects can contain data in the form of fields (often known as attributes) and code, in the form of methods. The fundamental concepts in OOP are classes, objects, inheritance, polymorphism, abstraction, and encapsulation.

- Use Cases: OOP is widely used in software development. It is particularly useful in large and complex software systems. It’s used in web development, desktop applications, game development, and many other areas.

- Advantages:

- Encapsulation helps to bundle the data (attributes) and the methods that operate on the data into a single unit.

- Promotes reusability through inheritance.

- Code can be modeled to closely represent real-world objects, making it more understandable.

- Polymorphism allows objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common superclass.

- Easier to maintain and scale larger software applications.

- Disadvantages:

- May consume more memory due to the storage of additional information.

- Can be slower than procedural programming due to the overhead of calling methods.

- The complexity of creating classes and objects might not be suitable for very small-scale projects.

- Can lead to over-engineering if not used properly.

Here’s an example in TypeScript with React:

// A class representing a generic user
class User {
    name: string;
    age: number;

    constructor(name: string, age: number) {
        this.name = name;
        this.age = age;

    greet() {
        return `Hello, my name is ${this.name} and I am ${this.age} years old.`;

// OOP in React Component
import React from 'react';

const OopExample: React.FC = () => {
    // Creating an object of the User class
    const user = new User("Alice", 30);

    return (

export default OopExample;

In this example, I’ve used a class to define a user object and created an instance of this class in a React component. This is a basic illustration of how OOP can be integrated into React using TypeScript.

5. Procedural Programming:

Procedural Programming is a programming paradigm based on the concept of procedure calls, where statements are structured into procedures (also known as subroutines or functions). Procedure calls are modular and are bound by a scope.

For this example, let’s create a simple script to calculate the area and circumference of a circle.

- When to Use:

- When you need a clear and simple control flow.

- For applications where performance is a concern.

- When working on small to medium-sized projects or scripts where object-oriented overhead is not necessary.

- Example Use Cases:

- Scientific computations.

- Simple scripting.

- Small desktop applications.

- Pros:

- Straightforward for those with an understanding of the flow of the program.

- Often performance efficient due to direct control over logic and flow.

- Can be easier to write and understand for simple tasks.

- Cons:

- Not ideal for large, complex applications.

- Lack of abstraction and encapsulation can make the codebase hard to maintain and scale.

import React, { useState } from 'react';

const CircleCalculator: React.FC = () => {
    // State to keep track of the radius input by the user
    const [radius, setRadius] = useState<number>(0);

    // Procedure to calculate the area of a circle
    const calculateArea = (radius: number): number => {
        return Math.PI * Math.pow(radius, 2);

    // Procedure to calculate the circumference of a circle
    const calculateCircumference = (radius: number): number => {
        return 2 * Math.PI * radius;

    return (
                onChange={(e) => setRadius(Number(e.target.value))}
                placeholder="Enter radius"
            <p>Area: {calculateArea(radius)}</p>
            <p>Circumference: {calculateCircumference(radius)}</p>

export default CircleCalculator;

Programming Techniques

1. Dynamic Programming:

Dynamic programming is an algorithmic technique used for optimizing recursive problems by breaking them down into simpler subproblems and storing the results of these subproblems in a table (usually an array or a matrix) to avoid redundant computations. Note that this is not a programming paradigm but a problem-solving technique.

- When to Use:

- Solving optimization problems.

- When a problem can be broken down into overlapping subproblems.

- When there is a need to improve the efficiency of naive recursive algorithms.

- Example Use Cases:

- Finding the shortest path in a graph.

- Optimizing resource allocation problems.

- Solving knapsack problems, Fibonacci numbers, etc.

- Pros:

- Greatly reduces time complexity compared to naive recursion.

- Can make certain algorithms feasible that would otherwise take too long to run.

- Cons:

- Sometimes difficult to come up with a dynamic programming solution.

  • Can have high space complexity due to the storage of subproblem results.


import React, { useState } from 'react';

const FibonacciCalculator: React.FC = () => {
    // State to keep track of the position input by the user
    const [position, setPosition] = useState<number>(0);

    // Function to calculate the nth Fibonacci number using Dynamic Programming
    const fibonacci = (n: number): number => {
        const fib: number[] = Array(n + 1).fill(0);
        fib[1] = 1;

        for (let i = 2; i <= n; i++) {
            fib[i] = fib[i - 1] + fib[i - 2];

        return fib[n];

    return (
                onChange={(e) => setPosition(Number(e.target.value))}
                placeholder="Enter position"
            <p>Fibonacci number at position {position}: {fibonacci(position)}</p>

export default FibonacciCalculator;

Dynamic Programming is not the only technique for solving problems in programming. It is one of many techniques that developers can use depending on the nature and requirements of the problem they are facing. Here is a brief overview of some other common problem-solving techniques:

  1. Divide and Conquer: This technique involves dividing the problem into smaller subproblems, solving the subproblems recursively, and then combining their solutions to solve the original problem. Merge Sort and Quick Sort are classic examples of divide-and-conquer algorithms.
  • Real-life Example : Imagine a librarian who needs to find a specific book in a huge library. Instead of searching each shelf one by one, he divides the library into sections. he first locates the section where the book is supposed to be, then divides that section into shelves. he continues until she finds the book.

  • Moral: This approach helps him find the book faster and more efficiently by dividing the problem into smaller and more manageable chunks.

2. Greedy Algorithms: In this approach, choices are made from the given solution domain which at the moment are the best local optima (i.e., the best solution for the current part of the problem). Examples include Dijkstra’s Shortest Path Algorithm and the Huffman Coding Algorithm.

  • Real-life Example : A child is allowed to pick candies from a store but is told to make it quick. The child starts picking the biggest candies first to maximize the amount of candy he gets.

  • Moral: The child uses a greedy approach to get the most candy in the shortest amount of time, but there’s no guarantee that it’s the absolute best selection he could have made.

3. Brute Force: As the name suggests, this involves trying all possibilities until a satisfactory solution is found. While not efficient, sometimes it’s the only viable option, especially for smaller datasets or simpler problems.

  • Real-life Example : A man forgets the combination of his suitcase. Instead of trying to remember or look for clues, he tries every possible combination until the suitcase unlocks.

  • Moral: Brute force can be effective but it’s usually time-consuming and inefficient.

4. Backtracking: This is an algorithmic technique for solving problems recursively by trying to build a solution incrementally, one piece at a time, removing those solutions that fail to satisfy the constraints of the problem at any point in time. Classic examples include solving puzzles like the Eight Queens problem and the Traveling Salesman Problem to some extent.

  • Real-life Example: A mouse is placed in a maze with cheese at the end. The mouse moves through the maze and if it hits a dead end, it backtracks to the last decision point and tries a different path.

  • Moral: Backtracking helps find a solution by trying out different paths and undoing choices that don’t lead to a solution.

5. Randomized Algorithms: These algorithms make random choices during the execution to find an approximate solution to the problem. Quicksort and Randomized Prim’s algorithms are examples of randomized algorithms.

  • Real-life Example: Imagine playing a treasure hunt game, where you have to find a hidden treasure in the least number of attempts. Instead of following a pattern, you randomly select spots to dig.

  • Moral: This approach can sometimes help you find the treasure quickly, but other times it might take longer because there is no strategy involved.

6. Heuristic Methods: Heuristic methods are used for solving larger, more complex problems where traditional methods like brute force are not feasible. These methods offer practical approaches to solving problems but don’t always guarantee the best or optimal solution. Examples include the A* search algorithm used in pathfinding and graph traversal.

  • Real-life Example: You are in a new city and looking for a famous café. Instead of looking at a map, you ask locals to point you in the right direction and follow signs.

  • Moral: Heuristics help you find a solution that is good enough in a reasonable amount of time, without guaranteeing that it’s the best possible solution.

7. Linear Programming: This is a mathematical approach to solving optimization problems, where the goal is to maximize or minimize a linear function subject to a set of linear constraints.

  • Real-life Example: A factory manager wants to maximize profits. He knows how much profit each product brings and the resources it requires. He uses linear programming to allocate resources in the best way to maximize profit.

  • Moral: Linear programming is used when you have a set of linear constraints and a linear goal to either maximize or minimize.

Each of these techniques has its own set of use cases, advantages, and disadvantages. The choice of which technique to use depends on the problem at hand, the known data, and the requirements in terms of efficiency and resources.

Find full source here: https://github.com/mavrickdeveloper/ParadigmsAndTechniques